The ECO region with its very vast area of over 7 million sq km as well as a talented, young and educated population of 450 million is considered one of the major economic blocs in the world.
Thus the reality of the economic life of ECO is far from desirable with the intra ECO trade of US$ 84 b in 2012 and a total foreign trade of US$817 b in the same year which show a ratio of 10.3% demonstrating the insufficiency of the intra organizational trade transactions in the ECO region.
It is for this region that the ECO CCI has aimed to identify the potential areas of trade and investment in the region in order to boost the economic solidarity among the member states and take further steps towards formation of the ECO Common Market.
With this objective the ECO CCI in collaboration with the member chambers has issued this publication in order to create more in depth knowledge of the regions capacities in Pharmaceutical, Textile and Clothing, Construction and Building Materials and Auto Parts industries in order to foster intra ECO trade and investment in this region.
Medicines and pharmaceutical industry play a major role in protecting, maintaining and restoring people’s health. The provision of appropriate medicines of assured quality, in adequate quantities and at reasonable prices is therefore a concern of global and national policy makers and agencies implementing health activities and programmes.
It is the pharmaceutical industry that carries out extensive trials to address issues of effectiveness of medications and to look for any associated problems that might arise. The industry is continually seeking to improve existing medications and to find new ones, including those for conditions that currently have no known cure. All of this research and development work involves carefully designed experiments and clinical trials, while the regulatory authorities also stipulate that trials of various kinds must be carried out. This is where the pharmaceutical statistician comes in. The statistician designs the experiments and trials, analyses the data and interprets the results so that health care professionals can have the necessary information at their fingertips when they need it.
By a glance to table 1, it is known fact that the average Per Capita Total Expenditure on health in the ECO region has increased by %80.32 in 2000-2010 reached US $ 1,017 in 2010. Although there are differences between the ECO member countries, regarding the average Per Capita Total Expenditure on health they allocated US $ 12 to US $ 1039 related respectively to Afghanistan and Turkey.
As you can see in table 1, the average Health Expenditure Per Capita in 2010 in ECO Region was US $1017 whereas Turkey and Iran have the highest and Afghanistan and Pakistan have the lowest Health Expenditure Per Capita among ECO countries.
Textile and Clothing Industries
The Textile & Clothing industry is one of the oldest, largest and most global industries in the world. It is the typical ‘starter’ industry for countries engaged in export-orientated industrialization and is labor-intensive.
T&C offers a range of opportunities including entry-level jobs for unskilled labor in developing countries.
The textile and clothing (T&C) industries form a major part of manufacturing production, employment and trade in many developing countries such as ECO Region. The textiles and clothing industries are important in economic and social terms, in the short-run by providing incomes, jobs, especially for women, and foreign currency receipts and in the long-run by providing countries the opportunity for sustained economic development in those countries with appropriate policies and institutions to enhance the dynamic effects of textiles and clothing.
Textiles and clothing plays a major role in the development and industrialization process of countries and their integration into the world economy. The WTO (2012) notes that in 2011, world merchandise exports in Clothing amounted to US $ 431 Billion (2.31 % of total trade) and in Textile was US $ 294 Billion (1.6 % of total trade). World has experienced double digit growth in annual percentage change of clothing export in 2010 amounted to 20 percent and for textile export this figure was 11 percent. World exports of textiles and clothing grew by 17 percent in 2011.
The top ten exporters each registered 13 percent growth or more.
It is to be noted that Bangladesh recorded the highest increase (27 percent) while the lowest among the top ten was recorded by the United States with 13 percent.
Obviously in table 2, Turkey and Pakistan as major ECO member state are standing in top 10 exporter of textile & clothing in which the European Union with 27 member states is also present which shows the undeniable capacity at the ECO as a major world economic bloc.
Also glancing at Table 3- indicating the Intra and total ECO Trade value in Textile, 2010, 2011, 2012 and Table 4- comprising of Intra and total ECO Trade value and percentage in Textile it is evoked that the level of the intra ECO textile trade has to be boosted in proportion with the above figures of the ECO in order to utilize the capacity of this industry by proper networking and partner identification.
Construction and Building Materials:
The construction industry including building and road construction is a major global industry and an index of development in terms of civilization and urbanization. All along the history the road construction and building industry has advanced through the same pace with the science and technology in a way that considering the methods of construction and the materials used in edifices ,roads and buildings of a country is regarded as an indicator of the civilized life in that territory.
With respect to diverse ecosystems and biodiversity in the different parts of the world and changing climate, distance towards the sea or the ocean and the frequency of the natural disasters including the flood, quake in different parts of the globe as well as increasing complications of the symbols of civilization and urban living as well as the aesthetic changes of today’s architecture, the building materials are experiencing a wide ranging choice.
Hence , given the significance of the construction industry in the economies of the ECO member states and the influence of this industry on the economic development of the region as a major global economic bloc with vast natural resources and mines providing the region with a competitive edge over other countries and regions, this publication is bringing to the businesses of the ECO member countries , the information of the top 100 companies of the member countries in the construction materials sector for which below is a summary statistical table 5 of Intra and total ECO Trade in Building Materials as well as Table 6 on Intra and total ECO Trade value and percentage in Building Materials for the perusal of the honorable readers.
Automobile industry constitutes one of the key elements of the industry in every country of the world as manufacturing and assembly of cars as the major part of passenger commuting heavily relies on auto parts industry as its essential ingredient.
Surely without having a reliable auto parts industry, the manufacturing of the vehicles will be less than efficient as the ECO with its vast capacities available in certain member countries can be a very lucrative target market with over 450 million of population for the cars and other vehicles having a record of US$ 15b trade with the world in this sector.
Hence this area of manufacturing is highly capable of absorbing the prospective joint investments in the ECO region which will result in elevation of the intra regional trade and investment simultaneously as well as creation of jobs, promotion of this industry and other developments such as transfer of technology and technical knowhow.
Given the above benefits and having in mind the current status of the ECO’s status in the auto parts industry which is explained in the table 7, this publication aims to help the operators of this industry especially from the private sector, know other potential partners in the ECO region in order to boost the intra ECO trade and materialize one of the major aims and objectives of the ECO CCI which is annual 1% rise to the intra ECO trade level.
Main items of ECO Trade in Auto Parts are included many items such as Parts & access of motor vehicles; Specl purp motor vehicles (fire fight vehicle , crane lorry); Trailers & semi-trailers; other vehicles not mechanically propelled; Public-transport type passenger motor vehicles; Motorcycles, side-cars; Bodies for motor vehicles; Chassi fitted with engine for motor vehicles; Parts and accessories of motorcycles & cycles; Bicycles & other cycles, not motorized etc.
By a glance to the table 8 it is known fact that the share of Intra ECO Trade as percent of Total ECO Trade in Auto Parts has increased from 1.83% to 3.52% in 2010-2012.
Also we can conclude that the volume of Intra ECO Trade in Auto Parts has increased by a growth rate of %124 during 2010-2012 which reached US $ 1.5 b in 2012.
Dr. Mohammad Nahavandian
ECO-CCI & ICCIMA
At a time when the world trading system is promptly advancing towards enhancement of regional pacts, in spite of its extended potentialities, ECO is in constant need of integration with rather not so proportionate level of intra-regional trade and investment linkages.
Hence with respect to the vast ECO population and its GDP in the world, the ECO should take into consideration planned development of intra-organizational trade and investment collaborations which is surely achievable by investigating the areas of relative advantage in the respective economies of member countries.
To pinpoint the ways and means of intra ECO trade and investment promotion, it is necessary to verify the potentials of each sector which is influential in the economies of the member states out of which we can mention the auto parts, building materials, pharmaceutical, and textile industries as major infrastructural sections of the economies of the region.
As very vast backgrounds for joint investment areas are available in these industries which are largely potential of joint investments as it is largely untapped in the ECO region, it is imperative to know the operators of the region in these sectors which makes it possible to establish linkages and B2B dealings aiming to make the region ready for being self satisfied using its own resources.
By selecting and introducing the top 100 companies of the ECO member states who have generously provided their information on their elite firms, this publication aims to shed light on the potential of the region for intra ECO trade and investment in the subject industries to further boost the intra ECO trade, joint investments and shared initiatives to meet the requirements of the region and create jobs, boost entrepreneurship and improve the SME’s.
I sincerely hope that this analytical study on 100 top companies in ECO Region motivates these countries to promote intra-regional cooperation in the subject areas.
Dr. Mohammad Reza Karbasi
Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) as a region of rich resources having a very strategic position as well as huge human and natural resources, widespread area and a vast competence for cooperation as well as a population of 450 million is growing in parallel with the increase of its consumption and import requirements.
In terms of trade, ECO trade volume has demonstrated a relative fair increase in recent years as in contrast statistical data show that the share of intra-ECO trade out of the total aggregate foreign trade of member countries is 10% as of 2012.
Unfortunately the intra ECO trade and joint investments are not up to regions expectations for which the ECO CCI aims to encourage such initiatives by dissemination of due information on the private sector companies in the region.
It is thus necessary that the ECO member states make joint efforts in order to identify the areas that they can collaborate in order to enjoy such a vast market with its untapped capacities and resources.
In this context the member countries will have to embark on an initiative to recognize most important products of comparative advantage to enhance intra-regional trade within the organization.
Hence in this publication we have focused on auto parts, building materials, pharmaceutical, and textile as areas of highest relative advantage especially for joint industrial investments among the member states.
We are pleased to provide this publication for identifying top 100 companies producing the above mentioned categories of products to expand the intra-ECO trade.
In this context ECO-CCI requests the member states to encourage the effective role of private sector in order to use ECO trade`s capacity and contribute to mobilization of the plans and decisions of the organization.